Some years later he writes the Apology, an account of what Socrates says in his own defence. The first stained glass windows were dedicated in , a memorial to the Archdeacon and Mrs Willis. Chaucer adapts to his own purposes the more conventionally dramatic account of this legendary affair written some fifty years earlier by Boccaccio probably read by Chaucer when on a mission to Florence in Combined with a sarked ceiling, the effect nods at a long English tradition, appropriate to an Anglican ecclesiastical building. This collection of about poems has a profound influence on the development of literature in China, inclining writers to delicate impressionism rather than the more violent epic tradition of India and Europe.
The texts merely enable his followers to preserve the works and to perform them in a consistent manner. A group of such followers, the Homeridae, become associated with the island of Chios, off the coast of Ionia. Ancient tradition links Homer himself with Ionia, and the language of the poems seems to confirm an Ionic background.
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The origins of Original dating st pauls theatre lie in the revels of the followers of Dionysus, a god of fertility and wine. In keeping with the god's special interests, his cult ceremonies are exciting occasions. His female devotees, in particular, dance themselves into a state of frenzy. Carrying long phallic symbols, known as thyrsoi, they tear to pieces and devour the raw flesh of sacrificial animals.
But the Dionysians also develop a more structured form of drama. They dance and sing, in choral form, the stories of Greek myth. Only a small number of tragedies survive as full texts from the annual competitions in Athens, but they include work by three dramatists of genius. The earliest is the heavyweight of the trio, Aeschylus.
Aeschylus adds a second actor, increasing the potential for drama. He first wins the prize for tragedy in BC. He is known to have written about eighty plays, of which only seven survive. One of his innovations is to write the day's three tragedies on a single theme, as a trilogy. By good fortune three of his seven plays are one such trilogy, which remains one of the theatre's great masterpieces - the Oresteiacelebrating the achievement of Athens in replacing the chaos of earlier times with the rule of law.
From BC there is an annual competitition for comedies at Athens - held as part of the Lenaea, a three-day festival in January. Only one comic author's work has survived from the 5th century.
Like the first three tragedians, he launches the genre with great brilliance.
He is Aristophanes, a frequent winner of the first prize in the Lenaea on the first occasion, in BC, with the Acharnians. Eleven of his plays survive, out of a total of perhaps forty spanning approximately the period BC. They rely mainly on a device which becomes central to the tradition of comedy. They satirize contemporary foibles by placing them in an unexpected context, whether by means of a fantastic plot or through the antics of ridiculous characters.
In most cultural matters Rome is greatly influenced by Greece, and this is particularly true of theatre. Two Roman writers of comedy, Plautus and Terence, achieve lasting fame in the decades before and after BC - Plautus for a robust form of entertainment close to farce, Terence for a more subtle comedy of manners. But neither writer invents a single plot. All are borrowed from Greek drama, and every play of Terence's is set in Athens. The misfortune of Plautus and Terence is that their audience is very much less attentive than in Athens.
And the reason is that Roman plays are presented as part of a broader event, the Roman games. The next great achievement of Greek literature is the writing of history.
No one before Herodotus has consciously attempted to discover the truth about the past and to explain its causes. He is rightly known as the 'father of history'.
The saga which inspires him to undertake anything so new and so difficult is the one which has overshadowed his own childhood and original dating st pauls - the clash between Greeks and Persians.
Herodotus grows up in Halicarnassus, in Ionia. At the time of his birth the Greeks are winning great battles in mainland Greece. During his adult life they drive the Persians from the Greek colonies of Ionia. The second Greek historian, Thucydides, adds a original dating st pauls dimension - that of contemporary history. An Athenian, born probably in about BC, he is a young man when war is renewed between Athens and Sparta inafter a peace of sixteen years.
Although the complete work of Herodotus is not yet published, Thucydides is certain to know the work of the older historian - who has made his living by reciting the highlights of his narrative. Herodotus has told the story of the last great war, between Greeks and Persians. In Thucydides recognizes the onset of the next major conflict, between Greeks.
He resolves to record the Peloponnesian War as it happens. Thucydides ' history is continued from BC by the third and last of the great trio of Greek historians - Xenophon. The fact that a contemporary continues the work so precisely from this date proves that Thucydides did indeed finish his work there, rather than the remainder being lost. But Xenophon, though a vivid writer, proves a very inadequate historian at a serious level.
A supporter of Sparta, he lacks any sense of objectivity. Fortunately this does not spoil the work which has made him famous. In BC he finds himself part of a Greek force making a desperate retreat from Persia. Objectivity is irrelevant. He describes only what he sees and hears. The result is vivid eyewitness history, akin almost to journalism. In addition to epic poetry, tragedy, comedy and history, the Greeks pioneer yet another branch of literature - philosophy.
The earliest Greek philosophers, begining with Thales in the 6th century, are concerned chiefly with what we would call science.
They seek explanations of the mysteries of the cosmos and of our planet. But their method is philosophical rather than scientific. Instead of observing the natural world, and testing their ideas against what they observe a scientific procedure for which they lack the equipmentthey take a more high-minded and dangerous route. They dream up magnificent theories which can only be judged by their own interior consistency - a congenital habit of philosophers.
Greece, in the century following Parmenides, sees the rise of a professional class often described as philosophers. They are the Sophists, who derive their name from the same Greek root, sophos. But unlike pure philosophers, their aims are practical. They are travelling teachers, earning their living by educating the sons of the rich. Education of this kind is carried out largely in conversation.
The dialogue becomes a feature of the classroom, and the art of persuasion - formalized as rhetoric - is an important part of the curriculum. Like the teaching of Confucius in China a little earlier, this training prepares young men to make their way in the world. There is a particular need for it in Athens. Socrates, one of the most famous philosophers in history, is the author of not a single book.
All that is known about his philosophy derives from what he says in the Socratic dialogues of Plato. These are written some years after his death. It is a much debated question whether the ideas they contain are mainly those of Socrates or Plato. During his life Socrates is a familiar figure in Athens - sufficiently so to be original dating st pauls in BC in a play of AristophanesThe Clouds the modern equivalent would be featuring on television in Spitting Image.
He is said to be ugly in appearance. He is also eccentric, cussed and tetchy, but with an underlying charm - characteristics shared by many a great teacher. After the defeat of Athens by Sparta in an oligarchic government, brought to power by the Spartans, imposes a brief reign of terror on the city. Democracy is soon restored, but some followers of Socrates have been connected with the repressive oligarchs. In a charge of impiety is brought against him. The two particular accusations are 'corruption of the young' and 'neglect of the gods whom the city worships'.
Plato is in court on the day of the trial. Some years later he writes the Apology, an account of what Socrates says in his own defence.
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It is in itself partly a Socratic dialogue; the philosopher leads his accuser into various absurd statements. Plato's fame today derives from his philosophical works, perhaps more influential than any others over the centuries. In his own time an equally great accomplishment is the school he establishes in about BC in Akademia, a suburb of Athens.
From the accident of its location come the words 'academy' and 'academic'. Instruction at the school includes mathematics in the mystical tradition of Pythagorasgeometry, law and the natural sciences - in addition to philosophy.
Plato's academy lasts more than nine centuries, until closed in AD by the Christian emperor Justinian. It has a good claim to be considered the world's first university. The Symposium, one of the best-known pieces featuring Socrates, is almost an early example of a novella, or short novel.
It describes Socrates going as a guest to a dinner held in BC in the house of a playwright, Agathon, who in that year achieves his first theatrical victory in the Lenaea. The victory and the playwright are historical, but not one of original dating st pauls plays has survived. It is decided that each man shall take it in turns to make a speech in praise of Eros, the god of love. Through the sequence of speeches, and the conversation arising from them, Plato is able to turn the occasion into a dialogue on the nature of love.
The idea of a higher Beauty or Good the two are treated as if almost synonymousof which the reality known to us is only a pale reflection, is a central concept in Plato's philosophy. Known as the theory of Forms, it probably derives from Socrates but is much elaborated by Plato. The Forms are eternal realities, existing in some higher realm, of which our physical senses only perceive a transient and partial version.
There are not only Forms of abstract qualities such as Beauty and Good. There is even, somewhere, the ideal Form of a tree, a chair or a cow.
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It is a striking fact that the three greatest philosophers of the ancient world are like three generations of an Athenian family. Socratesin the last ten years of his life, discusses the eternal verities with Platoa young member of his circle. Plato, in the last 20 years of his life, has Aristotle as first a pupil and then a teaching colleague in his famous academy.
The trio, whose ideas in different ways dominate western speculation for the next two millennia, are in a very real sense akin to a grandfather, father and son. But while the first two generations remain closely linked, the third - in the form original dating st pauls Aristotle - takes a radically different approach.
Even if some are lost, nearly fifty works attributed to Aristotle have come down to us. They fall into several distinct categories. Of his various works on logic the Prior Analytics has been the most influential, for it introduces the important device of the syllogism. This is a deductive procedure, used in philosophy ever since, which leads from two categorical premises to an implicit conclusion. From the premises 'All men need to eat' and 'All Greeks are men', the conclusion can be drawn that 'All Greeks need to eat'.
The final flowering of Sanskrit literature takes place at the courts of the Gupta dynasty. By this time the spoken languages of India have long been evolving in their own separate directions.
Sanskrit has become a literary language, known and used only by a small educated minority - much like Latin in medieval Europe. The poems and plays of the Gupta period are correspondingly artificial in style, but at their best they have considerable charm.
Shakuntala, a play of about AD by Kalidasa, has been popular far beyond India's borders ever since its translation into English and German in the 18th century. The golden age of Latin literature coincides with the peace and prosperity of Italy in the early decades of the empire. The link is more than coincidence.
HISTORY OF LITERATURE
In the intimate circle of the emperor Augustus is the immensely rich Maecenas, whose name has become synonymous with patronage of the arts; and the writers encouraged by Maecenas share the widespread enthusiasm for the peace brought to Rome by Augustus. So the Augustan Agein literary terms, is a circle of mutual benefit and esteem. Born in 70 BC in a farming community near Mantua, Rome's greatest poet finds his inspiration in the traditions and history of the Italian countryside.
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As a young adult Virgil lives under the shadow of the civil wars which convulse Italy during the 40s one of his earliest poems, the first Eclogue, concerns the confiscation of Virgil's family farm to settle veteran soldiers after the battle of Philippi. In his work he locuri de muncă new york the subsequent peace.
Virgil's reputation is established with the publication of the ten short Eclogues, written between 42 and 37 BC see Publishing in Rome. Their success brings him to the notice of his future patron, Maecenas. Between them, in an ever-shifting balance, the works of Plato and Aristotle remain the dominant influence on western thought for years, until the time of Descartes.
In 3rd-century Rome Plotinus merges them in Neo-Platonism. During the dark ages of western Europe their works are preserved and commented on by Greek scholars in Constantinople, by Persians such as Avicenna and by Arabs and Jews in Spain AverröesMaimonides. Such men hand on the tradition until Aristotle is adopted as the patron saint of scholasticism and Plato, in his turn, of the Renaissance.
This is a remarkable result from some sixty years of hard thinking in ancient Athens. Virgil's greatest work, on which he spends the rest of his life, is written when Octavian has been named Augustus Caesar and is in fact though not in theory a Roman emperor. Where the Georgics gently celebrate Italy and its countryside, original dating st pauls Aeneid is an epic in praise of Rome - the power which will liberate the genius of the Italian people.
The reign of Augustus, and the recently achieved Pax Romanais implicit as the natural finale of the story. By a quirk of fate Augustus himself, praised for saving Rome, also saves the poem. It is in his interest to do so. The Aeneid traces his own descent back to Aeneas himself, the founder of Rome.
Horace represents a new idea of the poet, similar to one later developed in another culture - China in the T'ang dynasty. In this tradition the poet is someone distanced from the immediate business of public life, free to concentrate on capturing, in the difficult craft of poetry, more lasting perceptions of the human condition. The subjects of Horace's short but tightly packed Odes called Carmina or 'songs' in their Latin title are friendship, love, wry amusement at the passing scene - anything which might occur to a man living a quiet country existence but in touch with a wide circle of sophisticated acquaintances.
The setting for this existence is his famous Sabine farm. The fourth great author writing in Latin during the Augustan Age is not so much a celebrant of the emperor's achievements as a victim of his autocracy.
Ovid is a generation younger than Virgil, Horace and Livy. By the time he is an adult, from about 23 BC, the civil wars are over; the stability and prosperity of the new Roman empire are established facts.
High life, original dating st pauls than a quiet life, is what appeals to Ovid and his contemporaries. And his poetic talents are well suited to amuse a society devoted to pleasure. Chinese poetry achieves its golden age during the T'ang dynasty. The ability to turn an elegant verse is so much part of civilized life that almost 50, poems by some poets survive from the period.
Poetry is a social activity. Friends write stanzas for each other to commemorate an occasion, and competitive improvization is a favourite game at a party or on a picnic. Early in the dynasty news of a child prodigy, a girl of seven, reaches the court. She is brought before the empress and is asked to improvize on the theme of bidding farewell to her brothers. The Resulting poemdelivered in this alarming context, is brilliant - though no doubt polished in the telling.
The three greatest T'ang poets are exact contemporaries in the early 8th century.
Enjoy the Famous Daily Mesopotamia: 3rd millennium BC The earliest uses of writing are strictly practical - lists of commodities, temple accounts, details of a contract.
One of them, Wang Wei, begins his career with a brilliant success in the official examinations but he rarely holds the high positions which this would normally imply ssee Chinese examinations. More important to him is his villa in the mountains south of the capital city, at Wang-ch'uan.
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The beauty of the landscape inspires Wang Wei both as painter and poet. None of his paintings survive, but later Chinese landscapes reveal the closely related influence of the countryside in both art forms. A poet of the next dynasty writes of Wang Wei that there are pictures in his poems and poems in his pictures. The first Christian writer since St Paul to reach a wide ulsan dating is also the last great figure in the story of Latin literature.
Confessions, his account of his early life and conversion to Christianity, is the world's first autobiography, introducing the genre with a masterpiece. And the massive Original dating st pauls of God original dating st pauls one of the most influential works of Christian philosophy. The author of these very different but seminal works is the bishop of Hippo in north Africa, St Augustine. Augustine's famous Confessions is essentially a spiritual autobiography, written from the viewpoint of a Christian bishop describing how he came to the truth.
It provides a rare and fascinating glimpse of the prevailing influences on an intelligent young man in the declining years of the Roman empire and the early centuries of established Christianity. Augustine's mother, Monica, is a Christian; his father is a pagan; but their main concern is that their brilliant son shall thrive in the world, probably as a civil servant.
Instead, as a student at Carthage, he becomes interested in philosophy and launches into a precarious existence as a freelance teacher.
A powerful influence reaching Japan from China along with Buddhismthe bureaucracy of Confucianism and even the game of go is Chinese literature and the Chinese script. When the first texts reach Japan, perhaps in the 4th century AD, the Japanese language has not yet been written down. The first Japanese scribes adapt the Chinese characters to the needs of a very different language, in an unnatural alliance which has remained awkward ever since.
The earliest surviving works in Japanese date from the flowering of court life at Nara in the 8th century. There are compilations of legend and history, original dating st pauls a magnificent anthology of early Japanese poems.
The Heian periodwith the Japanese capital at Kyoto, is distinguished by literature as elegant and subtle as the style of the court itself. As in China, poetry is here considered an essential element of civilized life. The competitive writing of verses is a social pastime. A good poet can expect preferment at court. Messages from a lover to his mistress are welcome in poetic form, preferably attached to an arrangement of flowers.
In the emperor commissions an anthology of poems, in the tradition of the Manyoshu of earlier times. The new collection, the Kokinshu, consists almost entirely of short tanka. It is more artificial than its predecessor - and more restricting in its subsequent influence. In the heyday of classical Chinese culture, a civilized gentleman - meaning a Confucian official - should be adept in three different artistic fields.
When he settles down before a fresh sheet of paper and dips his brush in the ink ground from a block of pigment by a servantno one can be certain whether he is about to pen an impromptu poem, paint a quick impression of a romantic landscape or fashion some traditional phrase in exquisite Chinese characters. The three skills, all expressed in the beauty of brush strokes, are closely linked. A 'soundless poem' is a conventional Chinese term for a picture. And a typical poem by the Song master Ou-yang Hsiu Sounds like a painting.
A parishioner provided cut stone blocks for the foundations and the builder was Phillip Cooper. Within just five years there was insufficient space for the growing congregation.
By church furnishings included an Episcopal chair, a lectern and a memorial font. Nationally, he was recognised as the founder of the Bible in Schools League. Thomas Tom E. Wellswas an influential community minded businessman and vestryman in Cambridge from Wells and his wife, Janewere involved in fundraising for the new church and in obtaining a number of the furnishings.
By the original church was bursting at its still unlined seams and plans got underway for a more substantial church building. To allow the new church to be built on the prominent corner site of the property, the original church was moved back from the corner by about 18 metres apse pointing west.
The original church became known as the Schoolroom and was used for Sunday school, church meetings including Waikato archidiaconal conferences and public courses.
When its spire became unsafe it was removed, the date of its removal has not been identified. A fireplace was installed in the building in for winter warmth. By the original church was also known as the Parish Hall, and a fund was started for renovating it. After further fundraising, including a bazaar, the contract for the new building was awarded to W.
Connolly of Auckland.
The foundation stone was laid in January by the Governor. Willis and Wells were both intimately involved with the building process to ensure its workmanship and quality. Due to the financial depression, the nave was shortened from the original plan, but enough pews were made to seat people and the church can hold Cambridge was the first New Zealand rural district to possess a peal of bells.
Bells were supplied by Vickers and Company, England, in steel, being cheaper and lighter than bronze. The bells were installed on sturdy kauri framing with elm wheels and yokes, overseen by Richardson and dedicated in The bells came with a chiming mechanism allowing one person to ring the bells, though no evidence has been found of it being used. It was original dating st pauls that the new bells were too large to be rung all the way around i. He was a prodigious organ builder, completing about a third of the New Zealand organs built by and some sixty instruments over his working life, leaving a respected legacy.
Some of the pipes were made in England. The resulting instrument exceeded expectations, infj și enfp dating as being of excellent workmanship and elegant design: it was dedicated in In memory of the South African War a carved reredos screen was obtained through Wells, at the instigation of his original dating st pauls, and installed in Edward Ned Hewitt d.
He was renowned as a fundraiser for the church. He owned the local Criterion Hotel for 30 years and was involved in a variety of community organisations. The pulpit was designed and built in Cambridge in his memory, with carved panels produced by Mr Andrews, probably William H T Andrews, installed in In Cambridge was gazetted as a parish and the Centre was enlarged with a lean to room over nine metres long, other lean-tos and sheds were added over time.
Wooden shingles were no longer legal and slate was considered too expensive, so the church employed local builder Fred Potts to reroof in corrugated iron. In a second section of reredos screen was completed. The same year Archdeacon Philip Walsh? In the prominent Waikato architectural firm of John Willing Warren? They also designed a font cover around this time in memory of a Cambridge soldier mortally wounded on 25 April in the Gallipoli Campaign.
The first stained glass windows were dedicated ina memorial to the Archdeacon and Mrs Willis. All stained glass windows in the church were designed and manufactured by Whitefriars of London, also known as James Powell and Sonsproducing coloured stained glass seen in churches all over the world from A set of windows in memory of the soldiers who died in World War One and paid for by parish members whose relatives had died in the war, was unveiled by Viscount John Henry Rushworth Jellicoe —admiral of the fleet, in From planning began to wire the church for electricity; however the New Zealand made electric chandeliers were not fully installed until In an electric organ blower was installed, and tuning and basic repairs were done locally until the contract was returned to Croft in As a birthday present to the Church, a new altar was commissioned in The fish weathervane was replaced with an iron cross inand in the World War Two memorial window was dedicated, featuring the three branches of the New Zealand armed forces.
The organ pipes and mechanism were moved into a gallery over the Western entry.
The organ was increased to three manuals with the console positioned in the South transept where the organist original dating st pauls easily view the choir. The Chapel of St Francis was built in in the area vacated by the organ.
A fire in the Chancel in saw choir pews scorched and a hole burned in the floor. Pockets of flame reached the ventilators in the belfry. Despite a rapid response and minimal water damage, smoke filled the entire building and approximately nine square metres of flooring had to be replaced.
The Church received an upgrade as part of its centennial in funded by the broader community, not just parishioners. The spire was resheathed in copper, and the cross replaced with one in brass. The pipe organ was again reduced to original dating st pauls manuals by the Crofts firm, overseen by Ken Aplin.
Aplin traded under the Crofts name until and continues to maintain the organ. Daniell and John Jack Edward Chitty. In he moved to Cambridge. Pearce was a parishioner who served on the vestry for a time, often providing advice on building matters. Fifty years after the consecration of the Church, the Parish Hall foundation stone was laid in August and the Hall opened in November. It could seat and featured under floor heating, a strong room for the church archives, a stage with changing rooms and a supper room cum Ladies Guild room off the western side.
In seedlings from this were planted around the Parish Hall. A lounge wing was added to the western wall of the Parish Hall in In the Hall served as the church for a time to facilitate restoration of the Church following a fire.
The additions to the Centre were removed and the building rotated ninety degrees apse faced north in In a flag pole was installed, generally flying the flag of St Andrew, but also the New Zealand, English and French flags. A lych gate was designed by Smith Pickering Architects of Hamilton in and installed on the Victoria Street entrance to the complex. It commemorates the eightieth anniversary of the liberation of the French town of Le Quesnoy, and the sister relationship between Le Quesnoy and Cambridge.
The Parish Hall kitchen and toilets were altered in and the archives moved. By about 21, people were using the Se potrivește cu o idee bună yearly. The earliest building in the complex, the Centre is the oldest surviving building in Cambridge and like the Hall remains in everyday use. The market day fundraising tradition continues. Postcards of the Church have also been used for fundraising purposes.
Community support has been evident when funds have been required for expensive maintenance, with donations not only from members of the church but also from local individuals, other churches, and the local council and grant agencies. It is enhanced by a complete set of memorial stained glass windows. It is the only church with a peal of cast steel swing chimed bells currently in use in the Southern Hemisphere, and the church belfry is one of only eight in New Zealand with a peal of change ringing bells.
The Church appears in several local heritage walk brochures as well as in national travel guides. Physical Description The church site was and is one of the most attractive sites in the town of Cambridge, bound on two sides by State Highway One, surrounded by established trees including those of the Domain across the road, and in a broader setting with many historic structures.
It is just outside the commercial hub and is surrounded by the Selwyn Retirement Village. The Church spire still dominates much of the surrounding town. All the buildings in the complex are painted in colours that tie in with the flag of St Andrews, i.
The layout of the buildings and key memorials are indicated on the site plan in Appendix 1 of the registration report. The First St Andrews Church - the Centre The building that was the original church is in an Ecclesiologist Gothic Revival style, single storey, gable roof in rusticated weatherboard.
It no longer has a belfry and has been moved twice within the church grounds, so that the half-octagonal faceted apse now faces north rather than east. As part of the relocation it has been re-piled, rewired and reroofed. It measures 44 feet The lancet windows have intersecting tracery and fanlights.
An original entry still exists on the eastern side, but the building is more commonly entered through the parish centre administration block.
The connection to the administration block involved the removal of a door and fanlight on the northern end of the western wall which was replaced with a lancet window. A third lancet window and an arched door were removed; the latter have been replaced with double doors.